ORANGE County, IN
Orange County is located in southern Indiana in the United States. As of 2010, its population was 19,840, an increase of 2.8% from 19,306 in 2000. The county seat is Paoli. The county has four incorporated settlements with a total population of about 8,600, as well as several small unincorporated communities. It is divided into 10 townships which provide local services. One U.S. route and five Indiana state roads pass through or into the county.
Orange County was formed from parts of Knox County, Gibson County and Washington County by the Indiana Territorial Legislature, on December 26, 1815 (effective February 1, 1816). In 1816 the Orange County seat was designated at Paoli, which was named after Pasquale Paoli Ash, the 12-year-old son of the sitting North Carolina Governor.
The first courthouse was a temporary log structure that was built for $25; a more permanent stone structure was completed in 1819 at a cost of $3,950. In 1847, plans were made for a larger courthouse, which was completed in 1850 at a cost of $14,000. This building is the second oldest courthouse in the state that has been continuously used since its construction. Like the oldest in Ohio County, it is a Greek Revival building with two stories and a Doric portico supported by fluted columns; it has ornamental iron stairs and a clock tower. In 1970, the clock tower was damaged by fire.
The early settlers were mostly Quakers fleeing the institution of slavery in Orange County, North Carolina. Jonathan Lindley brought his group of Quakers from North Carolina to the area in 1811. They were the first to build a religious structure, the Lick Creek Meeting House in 1813. It was from this group that Orange County got its name. (See List of Indiana county name etymologies). The name Orange derives from the Dutch Protestant House of Orange, which accessed the English throne with the accession of King William III in 1689, following the Glorious Revolution.
When the North Carolina Quakers came to Indiana, they brought several freed slaves. These free men were deeded of land in the heart of a dense forest. Word of mouth soon spread the news, and this land became part of the "underground railroad" for runaway slaves. For many years, the freed slaves in this area farmed, traded, and sold their labor to others while living in this settlement. A church and cemetery were constructed.
All that remains today is the cemetery, with many lost or vandalized headstones. Several years ago, Boy Scouts restored the cemetery, replacing the stones with wooden crosses designating a grave. The name of "Little Africa" came about because of the black settlement, but it was called "Paddy's Garden" by its early users.
Much of the south part of the county, south of Paoli and French Lick, is part of the Hoosier National Forest. Patoka Lake is within the national forest; the majority of the lake lies in Orange County, with parts extending into neighboring Dubois and Crawford counties.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Orange County has a total area of , of which (or 97.60%) is land and (or 2.40%) is water.
French Lick Municipal Airport (IATA: FRH, ICAO: KFRH, FAA LID: FRH) is a city-owned public-use airport located three nautical miles (6 km) southwest of the central business district of French Lick, a town in Orange County, Indiana, United States. Also known as French Lick Airport, it serves the French Lick and West Baden, Indiana area.
French Lick Scenic Railway (French Lick West Baden and Southern Railway/ Indiana Railway Museum) Popular train rides in Indiana aboard the French Lick Scenic Railway offer 20-mile day tours through parts of the Hoosier National Forest, the 2,200-foot Burton Tunnel (Indiana's second longest tunnel), and past limestone outcroppings.
Check the daily departure schedule but know the historic French Lick Scenic Railway also hosts special events and seasonal trips throughout the year, like these famous family attractions:
Easter Bunny Express
Climate and weather
In recent years, average temperatures in Paoli have ranged from a low of in January to a high of in July, although a record low of was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of was recorded in July 1901. Average monthly precipitation ranged from in October to in May.
The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes.
A board of commissioners is the county's executive body. Commissioners are elected in staggered four-year terms. The board is charged with executing the council's decisions, with collecting revenue, and with managing the county government.
The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.
The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor and circuit court clerk. Each serves a four-year term, and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and be residents of the county.
Each township has a trustee and a three-member board, which administers rural fire protection and ambulance service, provides poor relief and manages cemetery care, among other duties. The trustee and board members are elected to four-year terms.
Orange County is part of Indiana's 9th congressional district. It is part of Indiana Senate districts 44 and 48, and Indiana House of Representatives district 62.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,840 people, 7,872 households, and 5,416 families in the county. The population density was . There were 9,176 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the county was 97.0% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.6% were of English ancestry, 18.8% were of German ancestry and 12.4% were of Irish ancestry.
Of the 7,872 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, and 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 40.8 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $45,874. Males had a median income of $35,679 versus $30,072 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,119. About 13.5% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over.
The county is served by four school districts:
Orleans Community Schools (Superintendent:Gary McClintic) includes:
Paoli Community Schools (Superintendent:Greg Walker)includes:
Springs Valley School Corporation (Superintendent: Tony Whitaker) includes:
This page uses material from the Wikipedia article Orange County, IN, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 4.0.