Ukiah ( ; Pomo: Yokaya, meaning "deep valley") is the county seat and largest city of Mendocino County, California. With its accessible location (along the U.S. Route 101 corridor several miles south of CA 20), Ukiah serves as the city center for Mendocino County and much of neighboring Lake County.
Ukiah is located within Rancho Yokaya, one of several Spanish colonial land grants in what was then called "Alta California". The Yokaya grant, which covered the majority of the Ukiah valley, was named for the Pomo word meaning "deep valley." The Pomo are the indigenous people who occupied the area at the time of Spanish colonization. This word was also the basis for the city name, as Ukiah was an anglicized form of Yokaya.
Cayetano Juárez was granted Ukiah by Alta California. He was known to have a neutral relationship with the local Pomo Indians. He then sold part of Ukiah to the Burke brothers which lie in the south end of town towards Hopland. The first Anglo settler in the Ukiah area was John Parker, a vaquero who worked for pioneer cattleman James Black. Black had driven his stock up the Russian River valley and took possession of a block of grazing land at that locale; a crude block house was constructed to house Parker in order to protect him and the herd from the hostile indigenous local population. This block house was located just south of present-day Ukiah on the banks of what was known as Wilson Creek.
The next Anglo settler was a man named Samuel Lowry, who in 1856 constructed a log cabin approximately on the corner of today's East Perkins Street and North Main Street. Lowery sold his claim to A.T. Perkins in the spring of 1857, and the latter moved his family into the valley, thereby becoming the first pioneer family of the township. Six others followed to make their home in the community that same year. The first United States post office opened in 1858. By 1859, the population of Ukiah had grown to about 100 people, making it a community sufficient in size to serve as the county seat. Before this, administrative duties for Mendocino County had been handled by Sonoma County.
The town was initially reachable only by stagecoach, with a short rail line from San Francisco terminating in Petaluma, nearly to the south, necessitating a horse-drawn trip taking two full days as late as 1870. In subsequent years the rail line was extended further northward to Cloverdale, reducing the stagecoach trip to — still enough to maintain the community's relative isolation and to fetter growth.
Ukiah was finally incorporated in 1876. It was not until 1889 that the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad completed its line from Cloverdale to Ukiah, linking the Mendocino County seat to the national rail network.
An agricultural and business community, over the decades various crops have been grown in the Ukiah Valley. They include pears, green beans, hops, apricots, and grapes. As part of the famous California Wine Country, grapes have become the predominant agricultural product.
Hops were once a predominant crop grown around Ukiah. The beer flavoring agent was first grown there in 1868 when L.F. Long of Largo grew an initial experimental crop. The climate proved suitable for the crop and production expanded, peaking in 1885, before faltering somewhat in the last years of the 1880s due to declining prices. Mendocino County remained the third-largest producer of hops in the state of California in 1890, with well over under cultivation, and production continued well into the 20th century. A refurbished hop kiln can be seen at the north end of Ukiah east of Highway 101, where many of the old fields were located.
Ukiah's 20th-century population developed in relation to the lumber boom of the late 1940s, with the logging of redwood once being a major industry.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of , 98.89% of it land, and 1.11% of it water.
Ukiah has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). Average rainfall for the area is per year. Measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 82.1 days per year. The greatest monthly precipitation was in January 1995 and the greatest 24-hour precipitation was on December 22, 1964. The wettest "rain year" was from July 1997 to June 1998 with and the driest from July 1976 to June 1977 with . Light snowfall occurs about every other year. The greatest recorded snowfall was on March 2, 1976, while the most in a month was in March 1896 and in January 1952.
The average high temperature is , and the average low temperature is . Temperatures reach on an average of 65.6 afternoons annually and on an average of 14.4 afternoons. Due to frequent low humidity, summer temperatures normally drop into the fifties at night. Freezing temperatures occur on an average 34.2 mornings per year. The record high temperature was on July 22, 1995, and the record low temperature was on December 9, 1972. July is normally the hottest month with a normal high of and a normal low of . December has normally the coolest temperatures with a normal high of and a normal low of .
The 2010 United States Census reported that Ukiah had a population of 16,075. The population density was 3,403.7 people per square mile (1,314.2/km). The racial makeup of Ukiah was 11,592 (72.1%) White, 174 (1.1%) African American, 601 (3.7%) Native American, 412 (2.6%) Asian, 34 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 2,385 (14.8%) from other races, and 877 (5.5%) from two or more races. There were 4,458 Hispanic or Latino residents, of any race (27.7%).
The Census reported that 15,301 people (95.2% of the population) lived in households, 281 (1.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 493 (3.1%) were institutionalized.
There were 6,158 households, out of which 2,049 (33.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,317 (37.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 938 (15.2%) had a female householder with no husband present, 356 (5.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 484 (7.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 56 (0.9%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,064 households (33.5%) were made up of individuals, and 919 (14.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48. There were 3,611 families (58.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.
The population was spread out, with 3,981 people (24.8%) under the age of 18, 1,562 people (9.7%) aged 18 to 24, 4,184 people (26.0%) aged 25 to 44, 4,011 people (25.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 2,337 people (14.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males.
There were 6,488 housing units at an average density of 1,373.8 per square mile (530.4/km), of which 2,673 (43.4%) were owner-occupied, and 3,485 (56.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.7%. 6,733 people (41.9% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,568 people (53.3%) lived in rental housing units.
thumb|right|The "World's Largest Redwood Tree Service Station" in Ukiah is built largely from a massive section of
As of the census of 2000, inside the city limits, there were 15,497 people in the city limits, 5,985 households, and 3,656 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,275/sq mi (1,265/km). There were 6,137 housing units at an average density of 1,296/sq mi (501/km). The racial makeup of the city was 79.5% White, 1.0% African American, 3.8% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.7% from other races, and 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.3% of the population.
There were 5,985 households, out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.9% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 26.5% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,707, and the median income for a family was $39,524. Males had a median income of $31,608 versus $24,673 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,601. About 13.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.4% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
As a community, Ukiah has roughly twice the number of people (including Redwood Valley, Potter Valley, Calpella, and Talmage) as the census reports. During the business day, an average of 40,000 people work inside the city limits, or in the business and residential neighborhoods to the north and south.
Major employers in Ukiah include:
Ukiah is known for wine production. The Ukiah vicinity is now home to some very large production wineries, including Brutocao, Fife, Parducci, Frey, and Bonterra. Ukiah vintners are known for innovating with organic and sustainable practices.
Ukiah was previously a major producer of pears. Alex R. Thomas & Company owned hundreds of acres of Bartlett pear orchards on the east side of the Ukiah Valley. For nearly 90 years, many local residents and migrant workers have been employed packing the pears for domestic and foreign consumption. On December 1, 2008, the company announced it would be shutting down major operations at the end of the year due to bankruptcy. Several acres of orchard have been torn down and replaced with vineyards since the packing shed closed its doors. As of 2011, the main facility was slated to reopen as a composting and trash-sorting facility.
The Ukiah Valley is home to the Ukiah Brewing Company, a certified organic brewpub.
Additionally, Ukiah has become home to four marijuana dispensaries, as a large town within the Emerald Triangle. Cannabis is a large export from the surrounding areas.
Arts and culture
thumb|right|Grace Hudson's Sun House, designed by Grace and John Hudson c. 1911 in the
Institutions of the arts include:
Ukiah uses a council–manager form of government in which policy is set by a five-member city council, elected at-large to four-year terms. The council appoints both the mayor and the city manager.
In the California State Legislature, Ukiah is in , and .
In the United States House of Representatives, Ukiah is in .
The tribal headquarters of both the Pinoleville Pomo Nation and the Potter Valley Tribe are in Ukiah.
Ukiah Unified School District
Other K–12 schools
Former K–12 schools
In popular culture
This page uses material from the Wikipedia article Ukiah, CA, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 4.0.