BULLHEAD CITY, AZ
Bullhead City is a city located on the Colorado River in Mohave County, Arizona, United States, south of Las Vegas, Nevada, and directly across the Colorado River from Laughlin, Nevada, whose casinos and ancillary services supply much of the employment for Bullhead City. Bullhead City is located at the southern end of Lake Mohave.
As of the 2020 census, the population of Bullhead City was 41,348. The nearby communities of Laughlin, Needles, California, Fort Mohave and Mohave Valley bring the Bullhead area's total population to over 77,000, making it the largest economic region in Mohave County.
With over , Bullhead City is the largest city in Mohave County in terms of total land area.
In 2011, the Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport was named Airport of the Year by the Arizona Department of Transportation. "More than 115,000 people flew into Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport on casino-sponsored charters in 2010." In the 1980s the airport was home to the helicopters of the TV show Airwolf.
The earliest inhabitants of the Colorado River Valley were the Mojave people. The rich soil and plentiful water provided the valley's natives with the necessities to create a prosperous farming community. According to Mojave legend, life began on Spirit Mountain, the highest peak visible from the Bullhead City area.
The first account of European contact was with Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz, who in 1540 documented his travels in what is now northwestern Mohave County. He recounts meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the shortened name "Mojave" (also spelled "Mohave"). While Mohave County uses the modern English spelling, the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave". Both are correct, and both are pronounced "Moh-hah-vee".
Father Francisco Garces, a Franciscan missionary and explorer, crossed the Colorado River in the Bullhead City area in 1774.
In March 1864, the current site of Bullhead City was the location of a settlement called "Hardyville". It was named for early resident and politician William Harrison Hardy. A New York native and an entrepreneur, Hardy established, with the support of George Alonzo Johnson's steamboat company, a ferry service and steamboat landing where the Mojave Road crossed the Colorado River. He also built and owned the Hardyville–Prescott Road, a toll road from Hardyville to the new Arizona territorial capital of Prescott, and raised Angora goats. He was a colorful and somewhat controversial figure. He was the town's first postmaster from January 17, 1865, and is credited with the invention of the riveted mail sack. He was also a Mohave County supervisor and a member of the Arizona Territorial Legislature. In 1864 his personal worth was over $40,000, making him the second-richest man in Arizona.
From 1864 to 1883, steamboats made regular trips up the Colorado River from Port Isabel in Mexico and, after the arrival of the railroad from Yuma, Arizona, stopping at Hardyville regularly to deliver supplies to the mines of the surrounding mining districts and those to the east in the interior of Arizona and carry out their ore for processing and sale. These stern-wheeler riverboats played an important part in the early development of the areas bordering the Colorado River, and Hardyville was considered the low water limit of navigation for the steamboats. Steamboat travel above that point to places in like El Dorado Canyon, Callville and later Rioville was possible only during the few months of the late spring to early summer flood caused by snowmelt in the upper Colorado River watershed. Hardyville was the starting point for wagon roads and pack trails to the mines and other settlements in the upper region of the river. It was also the port for flatboats that ascended the river as far as Callville in the extreme low water time of the year.
In April 1866, Brevet Brigadier General James Fowler Rusling visited the settlement and described it:
Hardyville received a boost in 1867, when it became the county seat of Mohave County and the mills at Eldorado Canyon began operating, stimulating trade up river again. Hardyville had a population of 20 in 1870. The 1870s saw a population boom in Hardyville as mining became more profitable. With the end of hostilities with the Native Americans in Mohave County, mines in the interior boomed again, and the small town later grew with the construction of a general store, a saloon, a blacksmith shop, a billiard hall, and a respectable public hall.
However, in 1873, the county seat was moved to the mining boomtown of Cerbat. In 1877, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived at Yuma. It bought out Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, and by 1878 had built rails into Maricopaville, resulting in wagon traffic moving to that railhead that was closer to the mines in the northern interior than Hardyville. Traffic on the road to the interior mines of the east from Hardyville waned except for that to Cerbat, Mineral Park, and Chloride. In May 1881, Issac Polhamus, captain of one of the Southern Pacific-owned Colorado Steam Navigation Company steamboats, went into competition with Hardy for the trade to those mines, establishing Polhamus Landing, a rival landing five miles up river, closer to the mines, taking away most of its river trade. Worse yet, the construction of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad to its bridge crossing on the Colorado River near Needles, in May 1883, saw the remaining interior mining trade move away from the Colorado River and Hardyville. The Hardyville post office was discontinued in favor of the one in Mohave City on February 19, 1883. As the silver price declined in the late 1880s and early 1890s, the Hardyville mill, its only remaining economic resource, became idle and the remaining population of the town left, leaving it to become a ghost town. Hardyville still appears with that name on a September 1911 reprint of a U.S. Geological Survey Reconnaissance Map, Arizona, Nevada, California, Camp Mohave Sheet, Edition of March 1892.
Hardyville Pioneer Cemetery, a small cemetery, now a historic landmark at , is the most significant existing remnant of Hardyville. An unofficial historical marker for the town is in the parking lot across Highway 95 from the cemetery at . The Hardyville Mill ruins appeared on a USGS topographic map, at .
thumb|right|Bullhead City's southern city limits as seen from
Decades later, Hardyville would be resurrected as Bullhead City with the construction of Davis Dam between 1942 and 1953. The dam was originally called Bullhead Dam after "Bull's Head Rock", a well-known rock formation along the Colorado River. Steamboats on the river used the rock as a navigation point. After the construction of Davis Dam, the water level rose and now almost completely covers the landmark. The community that arose during the construction of Bullhead Dam was nicknamed Bullhead. Bullhead City became the headquarters for the construction project, which was completed in 1953. Thus the name Bullhead City was born. As the nearby Lake Mohave developed into a major tourism destination, and as the casino and resort town of Laughlin, Nevada, sprouted up across the river, Bullhead City grew rapidly.
In 1970, Bullhead City was the name of the six blocks that ran north–south along Highway 95 across the river from Don Laughlin's casino. About a thousand people lived in the original Bullhead City at that time, with about 3,000 people in Riviera. In 1984, the small communities of Bullhead City, Riviera, and Holiday Shores voted to incorporate, choosing the name "Bullhead City" for its historical significance.
Bullhead City and the neighboring town of Laughlin, Nevada, have grown in popularity as tourist destinations, and so has the population. Today, tourism is by far the main economy in Bullhead City. In the summer months, tourists from all over come for water recreation on Lake Mohave and the Colorado River. Starting in the fall, tourists from colder states flock by the thousands in their motor homes because of the mild winters.
Bullhead City is home to an international airport, two full-service hospitals, and a community college. The city has a stabilizing housing market. It also serves as the shopping hub of the tri-state area.
Bullhead City is in western Mohave County on the east side of the Colorado River, which forms the Arizona–Nevada state line. It is west of Kingman, the Mohave county seat, north of Needles, California, south of Las Vegas, Nevada, and northwest of Phoenix. According to the United States Census Bureau, Bullhead City has a total area of , of which are land and , or 1.30%, are water.
Bullhead City first appeared on the 1980 U.S. Census as the census-designated place (CDP) of Bullhead City-Riviera. It incorporated in 1984 as Bullhead City and has appeared on every successive census.
Bullhead City and the neighboring communities of Laughlin, Nevada, Fort Mohave, Mohave Valley, Arizona, and Needles, California, make up what is referred to as the "Tri-State Area". This is an economically interdependent group of communities, all geographically connected within a radius. The population of the tri-state area, including Bullhead City, is about 100,000. The catchment area of Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport, according to its own statistics, includes 110,000 residents.
As of the census of 2000, there were 33,769 people, 13,909 households, and 9,110 families residing in the city. The population density was 746.6 people per square mile (288.3/km2). There were 18,430 housing units at an average density of 407.5 per square mile (157.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.6% White, 1.0% Black, 1.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 8.3% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. 20.2% of the population were Hispanic.
There were 13,909 households, out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.5% were non-families. 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.86.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 22.5% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 26.6% from 45 to 64, and 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,221, and the median income for a family was $33,914. Males had a median income of $23,617 versus $19,564 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,250. About 11.3% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.2% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 39,540 people, 16,761 households, and 7,472 families. The Arizona Office of Employment and Population Statistics adjusted the population of Bullhead City to 40,088 in March 2016. The population density was 665.9 people per square mile (288.3/km2), and was divided as 50.9% male and 49.1% female. There were 23,464 total housing units.
The racial makeup of the city was 81.9% White, 1.3% Black, 1.1% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. 23.7% of the population were Hispanic.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,492, and the median income for a family was $45,269. The per capita income for the city was $21,366. About 14.1% of families and 20.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.2% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. (All figures in 2013 inflation-adjusted dollars.)
Bullhead City has a desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh), with several inches of precipitation year-round. 2014 was the last year with recorded snowfall, but no snow depth has been recorded.
Summers are very hot, with temperatures frequently exceeding in July and August, and winters are mild with days typically seeing temperatures between degrees in January and February. It is one of the hottest cities nationwide during the summer. There are on average 185 days with a high reaching , and can be seen on 135 days. Heat waves involving temperatures reaching over are not unusual.
Parks and recreation
Bullhead City has hundreds of acres of city-operated parks. Ken Fovargue Park features lighted basketball courts, a bike trail, ball fields, a playground, and a public swimming pool with a water slide. Rotary Park, the largest city park, covers of riverfront land. It features maintained beaches with ramadas and barbecues, a large skate park, fishing jetty, fish cleaning station, boat launching ramps, a dog park, a disc golf course, and a complete lighted sports complex that hosts regional tournaments and local competitions. The proposed Arizona Peace Trail would serve Bullhead City.
Special events and sports tournaments
Bullhead City hosts many annual events, the most notable being a river regatta. On the weekend of August 13, 2016, the 10th annual Bullhead City River Regatta, with a Pirates of the Colorado theme, attracted 30,158 registered participants. The local economic impact of the event was estimated at $20 million in 2015, although the city made just $208,000.
Other events take advantage of Bullhead City's climate in the fall and winter months, in particular sports tournaments. Every February, A.Y.S.O. Region 397 hosts the annual Colorado River Invitational Tournament at Rotary Park. The annual youth soccer tournament draws thousands of young soccer players and their supporters. The City of Bullhead City also sponsors two Senior Softball Tournaments every year, one in the spring and one in the fall. Participants come from as far away as Canada.
Just a few miles south of the city limits, in Fort Mohave, is the Mojave Crossing Event Center, an arena with a seating capacity of 5,000. As the largest stadium/arena in Mohave County, it is frequently used for large events such as graduation ceremonies, circuses, indoor extreme motocross, monster truck rallies, and concerts.
Education and culture
Bullhead City is home to several educational institutions, the largest of which is the Bullhead City Campus of Mohave Community College. The campus also houses Northern Arizona University's Bullhead City campus, which offers four-year degree programs. Recently, MCC Bullhead City received a donation of $1.8 million from the BHHS Legacy Foundation to build a 14,000 sq. ft. Health Sciences Building. Arizona governor Jan Brewer attended the groundbreaking ceremony in January 2012. Construction of the Health Sciences building was completed in August 2012.
Bullhead City's elementary and junior high schools are operated by the Bullhead City Elementary School District. These schools include Sunrise Elementary School, Coyote Canyon Elementary School, Desert Valley Elementary School, Diamondback Elementary School, Bullhead City Middle School, and Fox Creek Junior High School. Bullhead City's high schools, Mohave High School and River Valley High School, are operated by the Colorado River Union High School District. Other nearby high schools are Laughlin High School and Needles High School. Additionally, Mohave Accelerated Elementary School and Mohave Accelerated Learning Center are public charter schools serving K-12 students in Bullhead City and the surrounding area. The Academy of Building Industries [AOBI] High School in Fort Mohave is a public vocational charter school, teaching the building industries trades alongside core academic classes. Other schools in nearby communities include Young Scholar's Academy, Mohave Valley Junior High, Camp Mohave Elementary, and Fort Mohave Elementary. Laughlin and Needles also have public elementary schools.
The Bullhead City area is home to four public libraries: Two Mohave County Libraries (Bullhead City and Fort Mohave), one Clark County Library (Laughlin) and one San Bernardino County Library (Needles). Bullhead City's library recently reopened after a major expansion to include a teen section, children section, 11,000 sq. ft. adult section, public computers, sound-proof rooms, and conference rooms for the community. The new "green" building was partially paid for by an environmental grant. Its innovative design comes from architect Will Bruder, which features energy saving technologies and special skylights that take advantage of the desert sun.
Colorado River Concert Association
The locally organized Colorado River Concert Association is a group of local citizens who attract performing artists to the community. Their purpose is to provide entertainment to the community while offering opportunities to local students who are interested in the performing arts. The association usually attracts three to five artists per year to perform in local high school auditoriums. In the past, the association has brought such artists as John Davidson, The Celtic Tenors, Presidio Brass, Alpin Hong, the Montana Mandolin Society, and QuatroCelli.
Colorado River Museum and Historical Society
Located in Bullhead City, just north of the Laughlin Bridge, the Colorado River Museum includes replicas of area landmarks, Native American artifacts and displays of historical items, from early settlers to the first slot machines. The museum is operated by the non-profit Colorado River Historical Society. It is open from September through May.
Train, bus, and highway
The Bullhead City area is accessible by Interstate 40 (via Needles or Kingman), Amtrak (via Needles BNSF), Greyhound, and Arizona State Routes 95 and 68. Bullhead City also operates a public transit system, the Bullhead Area Transit System (BATS). Sister cities Needles and Laughlin also operate their own small public transit systems.
Bullhead City is served by the bus companies Greyhound and TUFESA. Several private shuttle companies connect Bullhead City with McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas. The city is also home to several cab companies.
The Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport is the only international airport in Mohave County, although there are currently no commercial international flights. American Airlines provides daily flights to and from Phoenix. Recently, the airport's runway was extended to to accommodate larger aircraft.
In 2011, the Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport was named Airport of the Year by the Arizona Department of Transportation.
The Bullhead City area is also home to two smaller airports. Eagle Airpark is a rural airport south of the city limits. Sun Valley Airport is a public use airport with a residential airpark. Neither of these airports offer commercial air service.
The Bullhead City area is home to several local newspapers, the most widely read being the Mohave Valley Daily News. Others include The Laughlin Times and The Mohave County Standard.
Bullhead City is part of the Las Vegas television market. However, based in neighboring Laughlin, Nevada, [http://tv2klbc.com tv2/KLBC], has been in business since 1989, and provides local television programming to Bullhead City and adjoining communities in Arizona. Bullhead City, Mohave County and for many years, Arizona officials were routine guests on the popular tv2/KLBC-produced program The Morning Show, hosted by the television station's general manager, Bruce Clark. In March 2016, The Morning Show celebrated its 5,000th episode. Clark died on June 15, 2019. Since his passing, tv2 now calls their news program "Take 2: The Morning Show" Hosted by: Tara Marie Haywood. The Bullhead City Police Department is also prominently featured on the locally produced show, Tri-State on Patrol, which is also exclusively shown on tv2/KLBC.
The City of Bullhead City operates a public service channel on Cable Channel 4 for Suddenlink subscribers. Over a dozen other regional network affiliates originate from Las Vegas and Phoenix.
Bullhead City is home to Cameron Broadcasting, the parent company of four local radio stations:
Other radio stations available in the Bullhead City area are:
Religious, social, and special interest groups
The Bullhead City tri-state area is home to dozens of religious organizations. Among them are two Churches of Christ (non-instrumental), three Roman Catholic churches, four Lutheran churches, three Methodist churches, over a dozen Baptist churches, two LDS Churches, the Bullhead Islamic Center, two Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Halls, two Episcopal churches, two Seventh-day Adventist churches, Unity Church of the Mohave Valley, two Assemblies of God, Foursquare (Spirit Life Church), Anointed Word Church, Calvary Chapel, various Pentecostal churches (including The Potter's House), and Harvest Bible Church (non-denominational) in Mohave Valley. A Temple Israel Ba Midbor (Jewish services in Laughlin), and active Neo-Pagan (Coven of the Canyon and River) and Buddhist communities (Soka Gakkai Colorado River District).
Bullhead City is also home to many special interest groups and social clubs. Among them are The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Bullhead 4-Wheelers, Kiwanis, River Cities Players and Community Theater, Lions Clubs International, Shriners, the Colorado River Historical Society, and Moose International.
Fort Mojave Indian Tribe
The Fort Mojave Indian Reservation covers almost in the tri-state area, and the local history is rich with Native American Culture. Currently, the tribe operates two casinos, one full-service hotel, and the Mojave Resort PGA Championship Golf Course.
In 2013, a 1,200 megawatt solar generating facility was built on over , just over outside Bullhead City. In 2005, the decades-old Mohave Generating Station Coal Slurry Power Plant was closed to reduce air pollution and excessive river water use.
The Bullhead City Elementary School District has accepted a federal grant to convert a portion of their electricity to solar power.
White water rafting, kayaking, and scuba diving
The stretch of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and Lake Mohave is mostly tame but offers a few white water rafting opportunities. If you decide not to hire a guide, permits are required to launch below Hoover Dam and can be obtained through the United States Bureau of Reclamation. Rafting supplies, canoes, kayak rentals and guided kayaking tours are available in Bullhead City.
On Lake Mohave, scuba divers can explore Black Canyon, which has excellent diving conditions. Advanced divers can check out Ringbolt Rapids, where swift water makes for an additional challenge. Work Barge on the Arizona side has a tow barge that sank in 1946. Cabinsite Point has two boat wrecks to view.
Fishing is popular on Lake Mohave and the Colorado River, which is plentiful with several species of fish, including Rainbow trout, Largemouth bass, Striped bass, crappie, sunfish, catfish (channel), and carp. There are dozens of coves and inlets that are well known among fishing enthusiasts.
Camping, biking, and hiking
The recreation area around Lake Mohave includes dozens of designated hiking trails, camp sites, and bicycle trails.
There are two resorts on Lake Mohave: Cottonwood Cove and Lake Mohave Resort. Both resorts have lodging, campgrounds, restaurant, store, and a marina with a gas dock. There are also off-road vehicle roads and hiking trails around Lake Mohave. Supplies and equipment for off-roading, hiking, boating, scuba diving, and fishing are locally available. There are sporting goods stores, scuba diving instructors, guided kayaking tours, and watercraft rentals available throughout Bullhead City.
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